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STDs otherwise known as Sexually Transmitted Disease also known as a "sexually transmitted infection (STI), or veneral disease (VD), is an illness that has significant probability of beingtransmitted between humans by means of human sexual behavior. That is vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. A person may be infected and potentially infect others, without showing signs of the disease.

Some STDs can also be transmitted by the use of intravenous drug use/needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding.

The first recorded European outbreak of what is now known as "syphilis" occurred in 1494 when it broke out among French troops beseieging Naples. From this center, the disease swept acrossEurope.

Sometimes the terms STI and STD are used interchangeably. This can be confusing and not always accurate, so it helps first to understand the difference between infection and disease. Infection simply meansthat a germ--virus, bacteria, or pparasite--that can cause disease or sickness is present inside a person's body. An infected person does not necessarily have any symptoms or signs that the virus or bacteria isactually hurting his or her body; they do not necessarily feel sick.

A disease means that the infection is actually causing the infected person to feel sick, or to notice something is wrong. For this reason, the term STI--which refers to infection with any germ that can cause an STD, evenif the infected person has no symptoms---is a much broader term than STD. An STI is ab infection that is in fact transmitted through sexual contact and not by other means. That being said, if a person is infected withchlamydia, gonnorrhea, genital herpes, it was transmitted to him/her by sexual contact.

The diseases on this list are most commonly transmitted solely by sexual activity.

Gonorrhea It is also known as "the clap" is a commonly sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usual symptoms in menare burning with urination and penile discharge. Women on the other hand, asymptomatic half the time or have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. Inboth men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spreadlocally causing epididymitis or pelvic inflammatory disease or throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves.The immediate symptoms occur in two to three days.

A mother may transmit gonorrhea to her newborn during childbirth; when affecting the infant's eyes, it is referred to as ophthalmia neonatorum. It cannot be spread by toilets or bathroom!! CHLAMYDIA INFECTION

It is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in humans caused by the bacterium "Chlamydia trachomatis." The term Chlamydia infection can also refer to infection by any species belonging to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceac. C. trachomatis is found only in humans. Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections worldwide. It is estimated that about 1 million people in the United States are infected with chlamydia.

C. trachomatis is naturally found living only inside human cells. Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal or oral sex, and can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth. If untreated, chlamydia infections can cause serious reproductive and other health problems with both short-term and long-term consequences.


It is a bacterial disease characterized by ulcerative genial lesions that is endemic in many cases less developed regions. It is also known as donovanosis granuloma genitoinguinale, granuloma inguinale tropicum, granuloma venereum, granuloma venereum genitoinale, lupoid form of groin ulceration, serpiginous ulceration of the groin. The disease often goes untreated because of the scarcity of medical treatment in the countries in which it is found. In addition, the painless genital ulcers can be mistaken for syphilis. The ulcers ultimately progress to destruction of internal and external tissue, with extensive leakage of mucus and blood from the highly vascular lesions.


It is also known as soft chancre, it is a sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one to another individual through sexual contact.


It is a bacterial infection caused by the fastidious Gram-negative streptobacillus Haemophilus ducreyi. It is a disease found primarily in developing countries, most prevalent in low socioeconomic groups, associated with commercial sex workers.

Safe Sex

Healthcare Professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by all means be considered an absolute safeguard. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertantly jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tatoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and hemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.

Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes. Sexual health clinic fight to promote the use of condoms and provide outreach for at risk communities. The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. No contact minimizes risk. Not all sexual activities involve contact: cybersex, phonesex or masturbation from a distance are methods of avoiding contact. Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom.

Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or before resuming contact if a partnet engaged in contact with someone else. Many infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures.

Many diseases that establish permanent infections can so occupy the immune system that other diseases become more easily transmitted. The innate immune system led by defensives against HIV can prevent traansmission of HIV when viral counts are very low, but if busy with other viruses or overwhelmed, HIV can establish itself. Certain viral STIs also greatly increase the risk of death for HIV infected patients.


Condoms only provide protection when used properly as a barrier, and only to and from the area that it covers. Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STDs. In the case of HIV, sexual transmission routes almost always involve the penis, as HIV cannot spread through unbroken skin, thus properly shielding the insertive penis with a properly worn condom from the vagina and anus effectively stops HIV transmission. An infected fluid to broken skin borne direct transmission of HIV would not be considered "sexually transmitted," but can still theoretically occur during sexual contact, this can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when having open bleeding wounds. Other STDs, even viral infections, can be prevented with the use of latex condoms as a barrier. Some microorganisms and viruses are small enough to pass through pores in natural skin condoms, but are still to large to pass through latex condoms

* Not putting the condom on to tight at the end, and leaving 1.5cm (3/4 inch) room at the tip for ejaculation. Putting the condom on snug can often does lead to failure.

* Wearing a condom too loose can defeat the barrier.

*Avoiding inverting, spilling a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not, even for a second.

* Avoiding condoms made of substances other than latex or polyurethane, as they do not protect against HIV.

* Avoiding the use of oil based lubricants (or anything with oil in it) with latex condoms, as oil can eat holes into them.

* Using flavored condoms for oral sex only, as the sugar in the flavoring can lead to yeast infections if used to penetrate.

Not following the first five guideline above perpetuates the common misconception that condoms are not tested or designed properly. In order to best protect oneself and the partner from STDs, the old condom and its contents should be assumed to be still infectious. Therefore the old condom must be properly disposed of. A new condom should be used for each act of intercourse, multiple usage increases the chance of breakage, defeating the primary purpose as a barrier


STDs tests may test for a single infection, or consist of a number of individual tests for any of a wide range of STIs, including tests for syphilis, trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, hepatitis and HIV tests. No procedure tests for all infectious agents.

STDs tests may be used for a number of reasons:

* as a diagnostic test to determine the cause of symptoms or illness

* as a screening test to detect asymptomatic or presymptomatic infections

* as a check that prospective sexual partners are free of disease before they engage in sex without safer sex precautions (for example, in fluid bonding, or for procreation).

* as a check after birth, to check that the baby has not caught an STI from the mother

* to prevent the use of infected donated blood or organs

* as part of the process of contact tracing from a known infected individual

* as part of mass epidemiological surveillance

Not all STI are symptomatic and symptoms may not appear immediately after infection. In some instances a disease can be carried with no symptoms, which leaves a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Depending on the disease, some untreated STIs can lead to infertility, chronic pain or even death. Early identification and treatment results in less chance to spread disease, and for some conditions may improve the outcomes of treatment


The incidence remain high in most of the world, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances that can rapidly render patients with many STDs noninfectious and cure most. In many cultures, changing sexual morals and oral contraceptive use have eliminated traditional sexual restraints, especially for women, and both physicians and patients have difficulty dealing openly and candidly with sexual issues. Additionally, development and spread of drug resistant bacteria, makes some STDs harder to cure. The effect of travel is most dramatically illustrated by the rapid spread of the AIDS virus (HIV-1) from African to Europe and the Americas in the late 1970s.

At least one in four U.S. teenage girls has a(STDs) sexually transmitted disease, a CDC study found. Among girls who admitted ever having sex, the rate was 40%.


It is the single largest cause of mortality in present day Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sex between partners, one of whom has HIV. Approximately 1.1 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States, and AIDS remains the leading cause of death among African American women between ages 25 and 34. Hepatitus B is also classed as a sexually transmitted disease because it can be passed on sexually. The disease is found globally, with the highest rates in Asia and Africa and lower rates in the Americas and Europe. Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus.


When syphilis was first definitely recorded in Europe in 1495, its pustules often covered the body from head to to the knees caused flesh to fall from people's faces and led to death within a few months, rendering it far more fatal than it is today. Prior to the intervention of modern medicines, sexually transmitted diseases were generally incurable, and treatment was limited to treating the symptoms of the disease. The first voluntary hospital for STDs was founded in 1746 at London Lock Hospital. Treatment was not always voluntary. In the second half of the 19th century, The Contagious Diseases Act was used to arrest suspected prostitutes.

The first effective treatment for a(STDs) sexually transmitted disease was salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis. With the discovery of antibiotics, a large number of sexually transmitted diseases became easily curable, and this, combined with effective public health campaigns against STDs, led to a public perception during the 1960s and 1970s that they have ceased to be a serious medical threat. During this period, the importance of contact tracing in treating STDs was recognized. By tracing the sexual partners of infected individuals, testing them for infection, treating the infected and tracing their contacts in turn, STDs clinics could be very effective at suppressing infections in the general population.

In the 1980s, first genital herpes and then AIDS emerged into the public consciousness as sexually transmitted diseases that could not be cured by modern medicine. AIDS in particular has along asymptomatic period--during which time HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS) can replicate and the disease can be transmitted to others---followed by a symptomatic period, which leads rapidly to death unless treated. HIV/AIDS entered the United States in about 1969.

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